New York City pregnancy discrimination laws serve two functions. They prohibit employers from taking adverse actions because of pregnancy, childbirth, or conditions associated with either; and they require employers to provide reasonable accommodations. Some industries present greater problems for workers than others. This may be based on the nature of the work itself, or the legal relationship between workers and employers. In New York City’s art world, working conditions have long been difficult for people who are pregnant or are parents.
New York City Pregnancy Discrimination Laws
Both Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the New York State Human Rights Law (NYSHRL) protect workers against pregnancy discrimination, but neither statute uses that precise term. Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, and defines “on the basis of sex” to include “on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.” 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000e(k), 2000e-2(a)(1). The NYSHRL bars discrimination based on “familial status,” defined to include “any person who is pregnant or has a child.” N.Y. Exec. L. §§ 292(26)(a), 296(1)(a).
The NYSHRL and the New York City Human Rights Law (NYCHRL) require employers to provide reasonable accommodations for pregnant employees. The NYCHRL goes a step further by requiring specific accommodations for workers who have recently given birth. Under the NYSHRL, employers must make reasonable accommodations for “pregnancy-related conditions” in order to allow workers “to perform in a reasonable manner the activities involved in [their] job or occupation.” Id. at §§ 292(21-e), (21-f); 296(3). The NYCHRL sets similar requirements, but also requires employers to provide a “sanitary place, other than a restroom,” which employees can use to express breast milk in privacy, along with a refrigerator to store expressed milk. N.Y.C. Admin. Code §§ 8-102, 8-107(22).